Suggested Reading

Addressing Glycemic Targets from Diagnosis to Discharge

Malaskovitz, J. and Hodge, C. Diabetes Spectrum. August 2014 vol. 27 no. 3 169-173. Read It Here


Comparison of an Electronic Glycemic Management System Versus Provider-Managed Subcutaneous Basal Bolus Insulin Therapy in the Hospital Setting.

Aloi J, et al. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2017 Jan;11(1):12-16.

The study compares the safety and efficacy of basal bolus subcutaneous (SubQ) insulin therapy managed by providers compared to a nurse-directed Electronic Glycemic Management System (eGMS). Read It Here


Cost analysis of intensive glycemic control in critically ill adult patients.

Krinsley JS, Jones RL. Chest. 2006 Mar;129(3):644-50.

The institution of a program to intensively monitor glucose levels and treat even modest hyperglycemia in the ICU was associated with substantial cost savings and strongly supports the adoption of this intervention as a standard of care in the ICU. Read It Here.


Glucose control in the ICU – how tight is too tight?

Inzucchi SE, et al. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(13):1346-1349.

In this editorial, the authors provide a response to the NICE-SUGAR study. Read It Here


Glycemic control in the hospital: how tight should it be?

Kessler C. Nursing. 2009;39(11):38-43.

This article provides a general overview of hyperglycemia, the debate about control, the benefits of adopting a protocol and the process of providing insulin in the hospital. Read It Here


Hyperglycemia: an independent marker of in-hospital mortality in patients with undiagnosed diabetes.

Umpierrez GE, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(3):978-982.

These authors examine the association between admission hyperglycemia and outcomes in critically ill patients. Read It Here


Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients.

Van den Berghe G, et al. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(19):1359-1367.

In this landmark study, researchers examine the effects of glycemic control on outcomes in patients in the surgical intensive care unit. Read It Here


Intensive insulin therapy in the medical ICU.

Van den Berghe G, et al. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(5):449-461.

This study expands on the authors’ previous work to determine whether glycemic control affects outcomes in the medical intensive care unit. Read It Here


Glycemic variability and mortality in critically ill patients: the impact of diabetes.

Krinsley JS. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2009;3(6):1292-1301.

The author analyzes the relationship between glycemic variability and outcomes in patients with and without diabetes. Read It Here


The NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators, et al. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients.

N Engl J Med. 2009;360(13):1283-1297.

This study compares outcomes in groups of patients receiving different levels of glycemic control. Read It Here


American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Diabetes Association consensus statement on inpatient glycemic control.

Moghissi ES, et al. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(6):1119-1131. Read It Here


Evaluation of nursing work effort and perceptions about blood glucose testing in tight glycemic control.

Aragon D. Am J Crit Care. 2006;15(4):370-377.

This paper presents some of the nursing challenges and costs that can be associated with achieving tight glycemic control using protocols that require hourly glucose testing. Read It Here


Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. 

Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, et al.N Engl J Med.2001;345(19):1359-1367. Read It Here


Decline in ICU adverse events, nosocomial infections and cost through a quality improvement initiative focusing on teamwork and culture change. 

Jain M, Miller L, Belt D, King D, Berwick DM. Qual Saf Health Care. 2006;15(4):235-239. Read It Here


Prevalence of hyper- and hypoglycemia among inpatients with diabetes: a national survey of 44 U.S. hospitals. 

Wexler DJ, Miegs JB, Cagliero E, Nathan DM, Grant RW. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(2):367-369. Read It Here


Excess length of stay, charges, and mortality attributable to medical injuries during hospitalization. 

Zhan C, Miller M. 2003;290(14):1868-1874. Read It Here